Influenza A Virus: Phylogeny of Neuraminidase Primers and Amplification of Polymerase Basic Protein 2 and Neuraminidase Genes

Authors

  • MARIA OMEGA
  • RICHARD LAI
  • HANS HEINE
  • ROSS BARNARD

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5454/mi.3.1.1

Keywords:

Influenza A virus, phylogeny, amplification, PB2 gene, NA gene

Abstract

Influenza A virus is a highly contagious agent that causes bird flu. To date, 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes are identified antigenically and can form any combinations or mutations with each other to confer non or low pathogenic to high pathogenic strains. Mutations in viral segments that are derived from avian isolates represent a novel subtypes to which human population is infected by influenza pandemics. In this work, polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) gene segment of 8 different avian influenza subtypes were cloned to obtain more DNA samples for future work such as PB2 sequencing and to test HA primer annealing with PB2 gene. PCR amplification of NA gene segment of 3 different avian influenza subtypes was the second aim of this work to test primer universal for NA genes. Determination of the aligned sequences between 9 NA subtypes and NA primer PCR products was the second aim of this work, based on BLAST result homology 100% and phylogenetic trees of clustal

Downloads

How to Cite

OMEGA, M., LAI, R., HEINE, H., & BARNARD, R. (2010). Influenza A Virus: Phylogeny of Neuraminidase Primers and Amplification of Polymerase Basic Protein 2 and Neuraminidase Genes. Microbiology Indonesia, 3(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.5454/mi.3.1.1

Issue

Section

Articles
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_6082325297a527_48332634(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_6082325297a527_48332634(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_6082325297a527_48332634(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php